Mahakam_2012 as a team of AACE certifications course is facing a situation to catch up the performance which left behind the plan. 3 members have resigned from the team. Tuckman assessment is used to determine which of the Tuckman’s Phases the team is in now and which LEADERSHIP STYLE is appropriate for to use to succeed the program objective.
There are some leadership styles alternatives can be implemented for the team i.e.:
- The exploitive
- The benevolent
- The consultative
- The participative
- The exploitive, where decisions are imposed on subordinates, motivation is characterized by threats, high levels of management have great responsibilities but lower levels have virtually none, there is very little communication and no joint teamwork.
- The benevolent, where leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust, motivation is mainly by rewards, managerial personnel feel responsibility but lower levels do not, there is little communication and relatively little teamwork.
- The consultative system, where leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust in their subordinates, motivation is by rewards and some involvement, a high proportion of personnel feel responsibility for achieving organization goals, there is some communication (vertical and horizontal) and a moderate teamwork.
- The participative, where leadership is by superiors who have complete confidence in their subordinates, motivation is by economic rewards based on goals which have been set in participation, personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organizational goals, where there is much communication, and a substantial amount of cooperative teamwork.
Selection of the criteria
The team development survey by Donald Clark at http://www.cscaweb.org/EMS/ sector_team/support_files/ tools_for_the_team/tool_stage. pdf is used as tool for the Tuckman’s phases identification.
Most of the remaining team members already submit their answer and it is presented as below in Table 1 & Radar Chart 1.
Using statistics we can predict the team score tendency as Table 2 and Radar Chart 2 below.
Figure 2 Radar Chart for Team Development Survey
It’s shown from Table 1, 2 & Chart 2, 3, that the team score of the survey get the maximum value on the performing stage (32.6), these indicating that The Mahakam_2012 team members are now is back to the forming stage. This is caused mostly by some people is not committed anymore to the team goal.
Analysis and comparison of the alternatives
- The exploitive system is match with forming phase since each member of the team focuses on the leader, accepting only the leader’s guidance and authority and maintaining a polite but distant relationship with the others. Structure and assertive leadership should be anticipated at this stage.
- The benevolent system is match for storming phase. Here’s when team members engage in debate, conflict, and struggles. Trust is questioned at this stage, some members attempt to assert individual superiority. Strong leadership is needed at this stage to keep the group on task as a facilitator and teacher.
- The consultative system is match with norming phase. The group members begin productive teamwork during this stage. They develop roles for working together, realize each others talents, and develop mutual trust and respect. Group cohesion grows, roles understanding, and witness interdependency and synergy. The effective leader in this stage gives up control and serves as a cheerleader and coach.
- The participative system is match with performing phase. Team thinking, team behavior, and team loyalty are realized in this phase. Individuals identify and take pride in team accomplishments. Interdependency and interpersonal trust peaks, so that team members cover for one another even without request. Now the team leader is inconspicuous, serving as sponsor and consultant
The exploitive system should be applied in this situation, where the team needs to re-structure / re-establish the team roles, reset the team goal and objective. The team leader must be directive and assert power.
The Performance is monitored weekly and monthly refers to the team schedule reports and meeting. This is necessary to determine when the leadership style will change as will be prompted by change in phase to the performing. If in any case, the teams goes backward in phase (serious event/project crisis), there will be need to identify elements of non-conformance and ensure these are treated, corrected or eliminated if they cannot be avoided.
1. Donald Clark. (April 21, 2002). Training , Leadership, and Performance. The Team Development Survey. Retrieved from http://www.cscaweb.org/EMS/ sector_team/support_files/ tools_for_the_team/tool_stage. pdf
2. Tucman’s Team Development Model Retrieved from http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdf
3. E. Scott Geller, Ph.D. (1998). The Stages of Teamwork. Retrieved from http://www.safetyperformance.com/TheStagesofTeamwork.pdf
4. Carol Wilson. (2010). Performance Coach Training. BRUCE TUCKMAN’S FORMING, STORMING, NORMING & PERFORMING TEAM DEVELOPMENT MODEL. Retrieved from http://www.performancecoachtraining.com/resources/docs/pdfs2/BruceTuckman_Team_Development_Model.pdf
5. AACEL Team Development. Human Relations Contributors. Rensis Likert. Management System & Styles Retrieved from http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_04_likert.html